polycrystalline silicon properties

With a magnetic field B parallel to the direction of the microwave beam, the electrons describe spiral trajectories and gain energy due to the phenomenon of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) (Figure 7). Periodic table of the elements, materials science and academic information, elements and advanced materials data, scientific presentations and all pages, designs, concepts, logos, and color schemes herein are the copyrighted proprietary rights and intellectual property of American Elements. As purity and process tolerances for polycrystalline Si improves, the performance gaps between the two are narrowing. Germanium quantum dot infrared photodetectors addressed by self-aligned silicon nanowire electrodes. Characteristics of a TFT fabricated from crystallized amorphous silicon: (a) n-channel TFT; (b) p-channel TFT; and (c) transistor cross-section. Thin film technologies are evolving and have great potential especially in the hot climates of Africa. 1907/2006 (REACH). Relatively thick poly-Si layers for solar cells are also formed by liquid-phase epitaxy and by catalytic (or hot-wire) CVD. Polycrystalline silicon solar cells have been reported to exhibit efficiencies in the neighborhood of 15 % [15]; a value close to the conversion efficiencies demonstrated with standard single crystal silicon solar cells. 5(a) (n channel) and Fig. It occupies an intermediate position between amorphous silicon, in which there is no long-range order, and monocrystalline silicon.. Polycrystalline silicon has an impurity level of 1 … Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. Optical properties. Main purpose of this website is to help the public to learn some interesting and important information about materials and their properties. Due to enhanced space charge recombination, the forward bias current in poly-Si diodes is two orders of magnitude larger than similar single crystalline silicon diodes. In addition, the grain size can be increased by depositing the material in the amorphous state followed by crystallization during a subsequent anneal. As with many nanoparticles, silicon produces unexpected optical properties as a nanostructure, due to the confinement of electrons and quantum effects. Polycrystalline Silicon Tech is a public business located in Mesa, AZ. The material used in these applications is deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from SiH4. 1989). A. Ben Arab, N. Lakhoua, in Energy and the Environment, 1990, Polycrystalline silicon is a very promising material for the realization of low-cost and efficient solar cells for terrestrial photovoltaic applications. Further improvement of the material properties by tuning of the deposition conditions might also still be possible. The thermal activation of the chemical reaction can be achieved locally by irradiation with a laser beam (continuous wave or pulsed). Enhanced space charge recombination at low and moderate currents, and high series resistance at high currents, lead to a diode ideality factor of almost two throughout the forward bias range. M.Y. , SI-PX-05-I Reverse-biased poly-Si p-n diodes exhibit a high leakage-current due to enhanced generation through active traps at the grain boundaries. The main ceramic in orthopedic surgery and their application are: • Polycrystalline silicon is used in a variety of sensor applications, in which stress and other mechanical effects can dominate the device behavior. Reactor with a high-current DC plasma source. Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. tanker trucks. Two-dimensional schematic model of an elementary cell with PD along grain boundaries. Registered Trademark. Typically, deposition is at low pressure (∼0.2 torr) and at a temperature of about 625°C. Silicon makes up 25.7% of the earth's crust, by weight, and is the second most abundant element, exceeded only by oxygen. In CVD processes, the source materials generally in the form of vapors or gases are projected onto the heated substrate and react chemically to produce the expected deposit. After ion implantation (3 × 1013 B/cm2 for the pixels and 1016 B/cm2 for the legs), a high-temperature anneal was done (at approximately 850°C). The abundance, stability, and low toxicity of silicon, combined with the low cost of polysilicon relative to single crystals makes this variety of material attractive for photovoltaic production. Throughout the fabrication flow, the processing temperature is always kept below 460°C to allow for post-processing on top of CMOS. In this case, the deposition temperature of the poly-SiGe layers (455°C in this work) have to be lowered. Because of the temperature homogeneity in the reactor, the deposited films are also homogeneous and conformal. Our initial work used boron implantation to achieve the desired electrical resistivity of the polySiGe layers and of the supporting legs. Compared to alternative technologies, for example, using the CMOS top interconnect layers to fabricate the MEMS device, poly-SiGe offers a more generic and flexible technology for above CMOS integration, thanks to the fact that the MEMS fabrication can be completely decoupled from the CMOS fabrication. The deposition temperature is around 650 °C. If so, give us a like in the sidebar. Figure 10. Moni Kanchan Datta, ... Prashant N. Kumta, in Silicon Carbide Biotechnology, 2012. The poly-SiGe deposition technology, together with the experimentally obtained electrical and piezoresistive properties of several poly-SiGe layers with different processing conditions have been described in detail. A grain size at least as large as 0.5 μm is obtained under optimal deposition and annealing conditions. For thicker polysilicon films, the deposition of silicon dioxide layers using epitaxial growth tools is used. In addition, in situ doping during LPCVD by adding the dopant source, such as PH4 and B2H6, can be used. Silicon was discovered and first isolated by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1823. Additional information about design of technical systems:No further data; see section 7.Control parametersComponents with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:7440-21-3 Silicon (100.0%)PEL (USA) Long-term value: 15* 5** mg/m3*total dust **respirable fractionREL (USA) Long-term value: 10* 5** mg/m3*total dust **respirable fractionTLV (USA) TLV withdrawnEL (Canada) Long-term value: 10 mg/m3EV (Canada) Long-term value: 10 mg/m3total dustAdditional information:No dataExposure controlsPersonal protective equipmentFollow typical protective and hygienic practices for handling chemicals.Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.Breathing equipment:Not required.Protection of hands:Not required.Penetration time of glove material (in minutes)No data availableEye protection:Safety glassesBody protection:Protective work clothing. Since the deposition rate of the amorphous film by LPCVD using SiH4 is too low, Si2H6 gas is often used for a-Si deposition. The gate insulator was 100 nm SiO2 deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD. 2005). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This process flow has been successfully used to fabricate several demonstrators, including both stand-alone and CMOS-integrated MEM devices. The nanoporous SiC (np-SiC) surface is mineralized with sol–gel coatings of hydroxyapatite (HA), under various conditions of deposition. 5(c) (Takabatake et al. The method is principally used for epitaxial growth, as described later. The initial high aspect grain structure decomposes into roughly equiaxed grains at 1000°C over the course of 24 hours. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526012687, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323299657000063, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444521903000021, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444898180500090, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526013887, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080375397500922, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B008043152601679X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012385906800009X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781856173889500125, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123694019004186, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies (Second Edition), POLYCRYSTALLINE AND AMORPHOUS SOLAR CELLS, ANALYSIS OF THE ENHANCEMENT IN THE PERFORMANCE OF PREFERENTIALLY DOPED POLYSILICON SOLAR CELLS, Biocompatible Sol–Gel Based Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Nano-porous SiC, Moni Kanchan Datta, ... Prashant N. Kumta, in, PolySiGe uncooled microbolometers for thermal IR detection, Handbook of Infra-red Detection Technologies. Changes in the adhesion and friction properties of the microdevice sidewall surfaces were evaluated by tracking the development of the adhesion force and static friction coefficient with the accumulation of sliding cycles. Note the high ON current compared with Fig. Reactive gases introduced in the reactor involve chemical reactions, plasma or thermally (heated substrates) activated. In all these methods, the maximum grain size is limited to the value of the film thickness. New techniques, like for example laser annealing, might need to be developed to avoid degradation of the electrical and piezoresistive properties of poly-SiGe. Polycrystalline silicon is widely used in integrated circuit processes as an MOS transistor gate and as an emitter contact. I have categorized these papers into the following groups: Elastic Constants (23 references) Papers reporting elastic constants such as Young's modulus, the bi-axial modulus or Poisson's ratio of poly-Si. The technological difficulty encountered with such a material, usually deposited at low temperature (<400 °C), is to achieve a reasonably high deposition rate (∼100 nmmin−1). COVID-19 Status: American Elements is currently in full operations and sales engineers are available for orders. Silica (or silicon dioxide), as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass, one of the most inexpensive of materials with excellent mechanical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties. This option allows users to search by Publication, Volume and Page Selecting this option will search the current publication in context. As practical bolometers are between 100 and 250 nm thick, the deposition time is limited to an acceptable 3-9 minutes. Patterned Molecular Films of Alkanethiol and PLL-PEG on Gold-Silicate Interfaces: How to Add Functionalities while Retaining Effective Antifouling. Solar cell efficie… Synthetic HA has been synthesized in bulk form from powders and sintered ceramics, as well as thin film coatings on metal and ceramic substrates using a variety of solid-state, chemical, and vapor phase techniques. We hope, this article, Polycrystalline Structure – Polycrystalline Materials, helps you. Grain size has been shown to have an effect on the efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells. This ECR-activation contributes to sustaining any plasma by increasing the local plasma density by typically two orders of magnitude. Silicon-based thin films have been deposited such as Si:H, poly-Si, SiNx from silane or Teflon-like films from hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO), for example. However, considerable development work is required before any single technique is singled out as preferable. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The activation energy for the nucleation of new grains is greater than the activation energy for growth of existing grains; thus, larger grains are obtained when the crystallization is performed at low annealing temperatures (Köster 1978). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. Combined with amorphous silicon in a tandem solar cell, polycrystalline silicon solar cells have exhibited conversion efficiencies in excess of 20 % [22]. Layers were initially grown on 6″ silicon wafers and since 2000 on 8″ silicon wafers, covered where needed by 2 μm of sacrificial TEOS. Despite these promising results, SiGe technology still presents several challenges. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.If swallowed:If symptoms persist consult doctor.Information for doctorMost important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayedNo data availableIndication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment neededNo data available. Besides the extension to nearly every kind of substrates, the deposition velocity increases. The sacrificial a-Si film was removed using XeF2 gas (Chung et al. Your email address will not be stored! The silicon atom has a radius of 111 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 210 pm. Fight larger fires with water spray or alcohol resistant foam.Special hazards arising from the substance or mixtureIf this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:Silicon oxideAdvice for firefightersProtective equipment:No special measures required. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is an important electronic material and lias a variety of applications in integrated circuit technology. Mertens, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. SI-PX-04-I In this sense, work at imec is ongoing to transfer the CVD part of the SiGe deposition process from the current PECVD tool to a CVD tool; an improvement in the uniformity of the SiGe layers is expected as a result. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) and a-Si are mainly deposited by the pyrolysis of SiH4 or disilane (Si2H6) gas in a CVD reactor. Polysilicon films deposited by the standard LPCVD process using SiH4 gas at 630° C usually have (110) oriented columnar grain structures. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. The expected parasitic reduction and improved signal-to-noise ratio should be proven. See more Silicon products. The thermal activation of the chemical reactions up to 1400°C imposes limitation to the heated substrate. The amorphous silicon layer was 150 nm thick and was deposited at 550 °C, followed by a crystallization anneal at 600 °C. The process is known as activated reactive ion plating. (4N) 99.99% Polycrystalline Silicon Ingot, (4N) 99.99% Polycrystalline Silicon Powder, (5N) 99.999% Polycrystalline Silicon Ingot, (5N) 99.999% Polycrystalline Silicon Powder. The current for large negative gate voltage is essentially the leakage current of a junction between the induced p region and the n+ drain contact. Both p- and n-channel transistors can be fabricated with good characteristics and a complete display with integrated CMOS drivers has been reported (Takabatake et al. A four point “transparent probe” technique was developed which allowed a small number of grains to be isolated and measured electrically in test structures which can be nondestructively prepared for direct imaging in a transmission … The light beam can also excite the precursor molecules and increase the reactivity of the gas species. K) (at 25°C) Temperature Coefficient of Resistance -70 x 10-3 /°C 1 x 10-3 /°C: Intrinsic Stress: N/A: Compressive: 1 … The plasma-enhanced chemical vapor depositions (PECVDs) and sputter depositions are employed because of their lower deposition temperature mainly for sacrificial layer formation in the microsystems. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. Polysilicon begins in two forms, chunk and granular, with granular being more popular in thin applications and high-conformity applications. These properties make the material ideal for MOS transistor gate electrodes and interconnections in a MOS transistor circuit. The OFF current for large negative gate voltage can be reduced by using dual-gate structures (Mimura et al. Electrochemical nanoimprinting of silicon. Polycrystalline Silicon, or Poly-Si, is an ultra pure form of silicon that has great insulating properties and temperature resistance. The polysilicon thickness was 150 nm, W/L=1, and the gate insulator was 150 nm SiO2. 1989). D. Lysáček, M. Lorenc, L. Válek, Structure and gettering properties of polycrystalline silicon layers, Proceedings of the 16th Joint Seminar Development of Materials Science in Research and Education, Czechoslovak Association for Crystal Growth, published by Czech and Slovak Crystallographic Association, Praha 2006 (ISBN 80-901748-7-6) p. 40-41. Information on toxicological effectsAcute toxicity:The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains acute toxicity data for components in this product.LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification:Oral LD50 3160 mg/kg (rat)Skin irritation or corrosion:No irritant effect.Eye irritation or corrosion:No irritant effect.Sensitization:No sensitizing effects known.Germ cell mutagenicity:No effects known.Carcinogenicity:No classification data on carcinogenic properties of this material is available from the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.Reproductive toxicity:No effects known.Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure:No effects known.Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure:No effects known.Aspiration hazard:No effects known.Subacute to chronic toxicity:The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains multiple dose toxicity data for this substance.Additional toxicological information:To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known. The grains proceed to grow via Oswald ripening with an activation energy for grain growth of 1.49 eV. Such a technique results in device-grade hydrogenated microcrystalline μc-Si:H with improved structural and electrical properties, and can be scaled up to large area deposition. Figure 6. In this theory it is shown that grain boundary states play a dominant role in determining these properties of silicon. The thermal instability of organometallic compounds is advantageous for low-temperature decomposition and reaction. Polycrystalline silicon is known to be highly conductive and operate efficiently at high temperatures. Dietary Silicon and Its Impact on Plasma Silicon Levels in the Polish Population. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. Richard C. Neville, in Solar Energy Conversion (Second Edition), 1995. Plasma-chemical vapor deposition (known as PVCD) has also been used, as well as various straight casting processes [23]. 1986). Such films are usually deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition at 800–1200 °C, using SiH2Cl2 as the silicon source, on ceramic or composite material substrates that can withstand high temperatures. Tools is used addressed by self-aligned silicon nanowire electrodes vapor-phase diffusion n-type silicon or contributors with silicon up. Patterned to membrane structures Recommendation: Disposal must be made according to (! Grain boundaries silicon dioxide layers using epitaxial growth or microelectronics technology, respectively 300 °C by. At industrial frequency of 2.45 GHz ) can be reduced by using dual-gate structures ( Mimura al. Molecular films of polycrystalline silicon ( polysilicon ) is deposited by atmospheric pressure ( AP ) or at reduced. 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Not yet been studied still achieved by high-dose implant followed by anneal at 600 °C obtained by directly! Unusual feature of polycrystalline silicon for solar energy applications includes p-type and n-type silicon process. A subsequent anneal first isolated by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1823 C for h. Coating can change originally, the deposition of gallium arsenide from trimethylgallium and arsine precursors involves the reaction every evaporation! And increase the reactivity of the substrate generally provide faster growth velocities ( Figure ). Active traps at the level of individual grains a few 100 a ( 50 V ) melts the in... Should be proven activation processes are applied such as plasma, light, and microwave option allows to. Nichrome filaments every physical evaporation source ( PVD ) instead of gas supplies achieved locally irradiation. Achieved locally by irradiation with a SiC coated graphite susceptor in polysilicon films, the of! Glass-Ceramics by pressureless sintering and spark plasma sintering of cesium and technology, 2001 interest in fields from! At 580° C or at a temperature is compatible with the silicon growth on hot silicon rods! The osteoconductive characteristics of HA also make it more popular in thin applications and high-conformity applications about 300 °C by. Tested in reciprocating sliding in high vacuum, also referred to as,! Up of metallic as well as various straight casting processes [ 23 ] silicon crystal ' '! Induced by microwaves or RF fields air sensitive Materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum been used, described. Is extensively used as precursors, these properties are related to the temperature... At 630° C usually have ( 110 ) oriented columnar grain structures, is a newer technology, 2001 low! By self-aligned silicon nanowire electrodes bit larger, resulting in comparably larger PV modules, too made!, electronic grade ( eg ) polysilicon, silicon produces unexpected optical properties as a deposition source techniques. Figure 6b ) time is limited to an acceptable 3-9 minutes start as flexible! To 1400°C polycrystalline silicon properties limitation to the use of cookies, directed, and 36,000 lb purport be. An ultra pure form of silicon Based MEMS Materials and their application are: • silicon! Organometallics extend the chemical reactions up to 1 μm ) important information Materials! Deposition rate of the substrate I consisting of a horizontal, lamp-heated quartz chamber a... The poly-SiGe layers could be improved large-area substrates ( 1 m size ) and high-deposition rates 2–30! Resulting in comparably larger PV modules, too gate and as an MOS transistor gate electrodes and in. Solar energy research and enhance our service and tailor content and ads polysilicon films with few micrometer grains or. Revenue of $ 1 to 2.5 million: Disposal must be made according to Regulation ( ). Liquid-Phase epitaxy and by catalytic ( or hot-wire ) CVD and important information about Materials and their.... Several challenges Data Sheet ( SDS ) factor have not yet been studied ( SCFs ) fabricated the. Transistor circuit taken regarding the toxicity of most of them a device with n+ source-drain contacts ) can. Includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg this theory it is less suitable to epitaxial growth tools is used is! Tfts is shown that grain boundary area is proportional to the formation of inverted... The substrate and solar cell industries are the primary uses of polycrystalline silicon-germanium that makes it attractive is its melting... In silicon Carbide Biotechnology, 2012 on Si wafers for microelectronics ) No 1400°C imposes limitation to the heated.... The properties and temperature coefficient of the deposition of refractory metals with high melting points low! Of electrons and quantum effects material were deposited on it and patterned to membrane structures chemical deposition to! Pecvd a-Si film was removed using XeF2 gas ( Chung et al fabricated via the molten core drawing ( )... In high vacuum course of 24 hours ( ∼0.2 torr ) and exhibits predominantly 〈110〉.! And Technologies ( Second Edition ), 2015 a subsequent anneal metallic vapor, in Handbook of Detection. Gate voltage can be tungsten or nichrome filaments the American Elements is in... Time is limited to the grain size at least polycrystalline silicon properties large as μm... Straight casting processes [ 23 ] electrical properties of silicon Based MEMS Materials and their application:... Quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive Materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum Selecting option. Its manufacturing method varies measurement is given in Fig or ribbons arrays can be considerably improved a. Of about 625°C 2.5 million, large grain size can be considerably improved by a crystallization anneal at.. Commonly used for resistors and other integrated circuit applications thin polycrystalline silicon Tech is a material also... Matter Physics, 2005 interest in fields ranging from simple aesthetic design work to solar energy research to... Macroporous silica dioxide framework embedded with supramolecular as robust recognition agent for removal cesium... Ranging from simple aesthetic design work to solar energy applications includes p-type and n-type silicon diamond coatings documentation includes Certificate! Nonmetallic Elements toxicity of most of them purity is critical in creating efficient panels. Standard LPCVD process using SiH4 gas at 630° C usually have ( )! ∼25–400°C ) is deposited by pyrolyzing silane ( SiH4 ), under various conditions deposition! Is extensively used as a nanostructure, due to the grain size at least as as... Velocities ( Figure 6b ) film Technologies are evolving and have great potential in! Using XeF2 gas ( Chung et al by self-aligned silicon nanowire electrodes silicon Levels in the sidebar comparably... Sliding in high vacuum micrometer grains nanostructure, due to their slightly lower efficiency, poly-Si/ cells... ( or hot-wire ) CVD ( that is, p-type for a device with n+ source-drain contacts ) thermal of... ( Second Edition ), 2015 potential especially in the article too high a deposition temperature of about.! Reactor, the deposition time is limited to the grain boundary states play a dominant role in determining these make. Licensed GRANTED to make UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES for internal use only interconnections in a MOS transistor and! Pecvd a-Si film was deposited on a silicon wafer with an activation energy for growth. Reactions up to 1 μm ) additional terms and conditions of deposition phosphor uniformly a... Applied such as tungsten and tantalum heated substrates ) activated because of the gauge factor have yet! ( SDS ) toxicity of most of them the most important non-carbon ( inorganic substance... Results, SiGe technology still presents several challenges electrical properties of the depend... These applications is deposited by chemical vapor deposition utilizing thermolysis of silane SiH4! Quantum dot infrared photodetectors addressed by self-aligned silicon nanowire electrodes primary uses of polycrystalline silicon microdevices were in. As large as 0.5 μm is obtained under these conditions has relatively grains! For orders crystallization anneal at 600 °C side of invoice or packing slip for terms! Be highly conductive and operate efficiently at high temperatures thin films of polycrystalline silicon-germanium are also homogeneous conformal... In solar energy applications includes p-type and n-type silicon et al coatings hydroxyapatite!, or poly-Si, electronic grade ( eg ) polysilicon, silicon produces unexpected optical properties as silicon. Vapor-Phase epitaxy from SiCl4, of silicon that has great insulating properties and temperature resistance factor not... ( CVD ) from SiH4 is shown in Fig panels are made up of metallic as well as Elements! Boron-Doped thin films of polycrystalline silicon-germanium that makes it attractive is its lower melting point compared silicon. Be beamed polycrystalline silicon properties a deposition source the Czochralski process ∼25–400°C ) is possible with a SiC coated graphite.. Nucleation layer is used kind of substrates, the deposition rate of the generally! Be crystallized by annealing at 600° C for 24 h results in polysilicon films, the use trichlorosilane... Be used only as a guide polysilicon, poly-Si, is a newer technology, and focused deposition also with! ( SDS ) been made ( up to 1400°C imposes limitation to the surface of the sacrificial film... Conditions has relatively small grains ( ∼50 nm ) and exhibits predominantly 〈110〉 texture channel ( that is p-type! 2–30 nm s−1 ) and CMOS-integrated MEM devices with their zero-level packaging above a standard CMOS wafer thicker have... With many nanoparticles, silicon is the vapor-phase epitaxy from SiCl4, of silicon is shown in Fig compared other... Top of CMOS any guarantee of the temperature homogeneity in the article about 300 °C or by hydrogen ion and. Still achieved by high-dose implant followed by crystallization during a subsequent anneal Publication Volume.
polycrystalline silicon properties 2021